Afghanistan: Past, Present and Future (Part I)

Afghanistan: Past, Present and Future  (Part I)
afghanistan_map3Afghanistan with 649000 Km squares located at the center of Asia. It is a mountainous country that its strategic position as corridor of East -West, and North-South has made it a battle- ground for global and regional powers. Afghanistan’s ancient name is Aryana that was changed into Khurasan following the advent of Islam to this land in seventh century. Some parts of present Afghanistan have common history with empires and adjacent lands i.e. Iran, central Asia and Indian sub- continent. Till 1747 AD no one of the Afghan rulers had been able to establish an integrated country under the name of Afghanistan.

Ahmad Khan Abdali, known as Ahmad Shah Dorrani is the founder of first sovereign Afghan state as well as its first king in modern era. In a short period he could easily establish a politically united Afghanistan ranging from Khurasan and Sistan to Punjab and Sindh. After Durrani dynasty, Doost Muhammad Khan Muhammadzaee played an important role in the arena of power struggle of Afghanistan. During his period two colonial powers Britain and Russia were advancing their influence and power in the region and the first Afghan-British war occurred in 1838AD at southern part of Helmand valley.
Amir Doost Muhammad Khan till his death in 1863 AD could keep Afghanistan united and consolidated within its today’s boundaries. After him Shir Ali Khan, Yaqoob Khan, Amir Abdol Rahman Khan ruled it respectively. At this time the second war between Afghans and British occurred and being defeated by the British Empire the Afghans lost their sovereignty in foreign affairs. Amir Abdol Rahman died in 1901AD, but before his death he announced his son Sardar Habibullah Khan as heir-apparent. During First World War Habibullah Khan announced neutrality under an agreement with British in lieu of regaining his country’s sovereignty from them.
Habibullah Khan was succeeded by his son Amanullah Khan in 1919 AD. In the same year the third Afghan-British war known as the independence war took place.
A peace agreement was signed by both parties in Rawalpendi in 1921AD thus Afghanistan regained its sovereignty. In 1928 the revolt of some Afghan tribes under the leadership of Habibullah Kalkani known as Bache Saqa led to removal and exile of Amanullah Khan. However, Muhammad Nader Khan_ father of King Zahershah- took the political power in Afghanistan on October 15, 1929 putting an end to the short-termed government of Habibullah Kalkani.
Muhammad Nader Shah died in November 8,1933 and his 19-year-old son Muhammad Zaher was immediately enthroned. Although Muhammad Zaher Shah was formally announced as new king, for three quarters of his forty years rule, in fact the power was at the hand of his uncles Muhammad Hashem Khan and Shah Mahmood Khan and then his cousin Muhammad Davood Khan. However, they never claimed the throne and only had the country under their control and influence. Four decades rule of Muhammad Zahershah was ended by a military coup on July17, 1973 and monarchism was converted into republic.

By: Abdul Naser Noor Zehi (Amini) – Sanaullah Shahnawaz

To be continued…


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