soviet-invasion-afghanistan-mapIn the first part of this article, it was mentioned that the coup staged by General Davoud Khan pushed the monarchy in Afghanistan to and easy end, and brought about the experience of republic system for the first time in the country.

On August 23, 1936 the government’s socio-political plan concentrated on fundamental rights including economic development, freedom of speech, democracy etc was announced. The leaders of Flag Party (Parchmi-hi) forced Davoud Khan to confront Islamic fundamentalism. At the first step, the government arrested Ghulum Mohammad Niazi and prosecuted some other Islamic activists. However, Borhan –u- Ddin Rabbani, Gulbadin Hekmatyar and Ahmad Shah Masoud succeeded in slipping from the grasp of police reaching themselves to Pakistan where they were greeted warmly by the then prime minister of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.
In the arena of foreign policy, Mr. Khan was inclined to West aiming to reduce the power of USSR and its puppets in the country. He normalized Pak-Afghan relations and made efforts for tightening his country’s ties with Iran and Arab countries.
On April 17th, 1978 Mir Akbar Khan- one of the founders of Democratic People Party was assassinated. The DPP leaders held the government responsible for his death. Later on, Hafeez-u-llah Amin took over the power through a military coup and the presidents along with seventeen members of his family were killed.
Communist system of 1979 was the beginning of misfortune for Afghans. When absolute dependence of the government on USSR became apparent to the people of Afghanistan, they expressed their dissatisfaction in three ways: 1) Joining extra-territorial resistance organizations 2) Guerrilla war operating from inside the country, 3) Propaganda.
In order to maintain its interests and to rescue puppet government in Kabul, Moscow decided for direct military intervention in Afghanistan.
Islamic groups and parties in reaction speeded up Jihadi activities more than before, and received wide spread supports from the people of Afghanistan and other parts Islamic world.
After the defeat of Soviet forces in Afghanistan internal conflict began among the former Jihadis as every one wanted lion-share in power, eventually, it was resulted in civil war.

By: Abdul Naser Noorzahi (Amini)
Published in Neday Islam Magazine


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