A Review of Religions

A Review of Religions
various_religious_symbolsFrom Islamic point of view the man has been pious and theist since his creation. According to Quranic verses the God almighty created Prophet Adam as first human and appointed him as his successor on the earth. A great number of western scholars also believes that believe to the God and the religion has been existing among all nations and nationalities since their early age. But later on, seeing different features of their surrounding nature such as vastness of sky and the immensity of mountains, the man got amazed. Feeling the presence of a mighty and mysterious power, he gave it an objective shape and started paying homage for them.

With the passage of time, mountains, jungle, stones, the sun, the moon, celestial bodies and even Satan and the genii were considered sacred and people went for their worship. The sign of this kind of sanctification can still be found in so many religions. For instance the Hindus believe to the sanctity of the twin rivers (Ganga & Jamna), the cow and many other living creatures. In Zoroastrian religion water, weather, soil and fire are to be respected. However, due to changes took place at the sphere of thoughts and beliefs, different religions came into being that generally are categorized into four categories.  This part of the article explains two of them:

1-    Materialism: according to this school of thought material is the essence of this world and any occurrence is its outcome.  It denies the existence of any God or metaphysical power and over all the divine recognizing only the existence of material. In past, the followers of this school have also been known as atheist.

2-    Philosophical Divines: it refers to sets of ideas that the philosophers of the era before Christianity have concluded about beliefs and ethics; and in principle neither these people have been prophets nor their ideas have been from revelation. The number of these kinds of religions is very great and hundreds of them are only being practiced in India. However, the famous ones such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Zoroastrian have huge number of followers throughout the world.


Judaism is one of the popular but expired religions. Based on monotheism it came into existence 14 centuries before Christ with the Prophethood of Moses (PBUH).
The holy book of Judaism that is called the Old Testament is a combination of 39 separate books written in Hebrew language. It has probably taken more than one thousand years to be compiled and several groups of editors have been engaged in its editing. Talmud as reliable and right interpretation of the holy book has always been highly regarded and respected. In the eyes of Jews this book is full of theosophy while in the eyes of others it is nothing but a bunch of myths and contradictory statements. Christians have always been opponents of Talmud because of insulting statements existing in this book towards Jesus. The main principles and instructions of the Old Testament are known as ten orders. The most important duty in Jewish calendar is the observation of the Sunday’s religious festival. It starts from Friday’s sunset ending by sunset of next day. There are various sects in the Judaism that most famous of them are: Farisian, Saddoqian, Samerian, Esenian , Qanonian, Qareoon, Donamah.

The Jews after the destruction of Jerusalem were always waiting for a conquering leader. To be noted that the idea of waiting for a Messiah is basically a Jewish belief. The Jews throughout their abased and humiliated history have endured every kind of humiliation and hardship in the hope of the day when Messiah would come rescuing them from the nightmare of humiliation and will make them ruler of the world. The Jews living in Islamic lands were enjoying a good life and a number of them even had got to high-ranking social status while the Jews inhabited in European countries had to live in some particular places namely Ghetto under humiliation, contempt and hardship. The civilized and human –friendly treatment of Muslims with non-Muslims and strangers is recognized by Jewish and Christian historians.

The European Jews due to constant pressure were not able to live with Christians and other communities. Their successive exile and migration make them to think on a country of their own. The idea of establishing an independent state has a long history. In late nineteenth century a large number of Jews was expelled from Russia. A group of them inhabited in the west of Europe and some others went to Palestine and settled in a place near Mediterranean Sea naming it Zion. At this time the European and Russian Jews ignoring the tradition of waiting, arouse for independence and freedom and established Zionism. Following that migration of Jews to Palestine was started. Forgetting the hospitability of Muslims, Zionists occupied that land in oppressive ways. Later on, under full-fledged protection of Britain and the U.S they also invaded some parts of neighboring countries incorporating them to the Zionist country.

Christianity was founded in the first century A.D within the framework of Judaism. Prophet Jesus the Christ from the beginning of his appointment intensively criticized the egotist, materialist and selfish religious leaders. When the Judaist leaders realized that the instructions of the Christ were threatening their interests, they planned to kill him. He was detained by Roman authorities and later on was sentenced to death by Roman court.

But from Quranic point of view and according to the beliefs of Muslims the Jewish conspirators and the Romans opponents of Jesus never became successful to kill him. That is why believe on crucifying the Christ from Islamic point of view is considered as sacrilege; therefore, no Muslim should believe on it and respect the cross. Believe on trinity is an issue related to polytheism and no where in Islamic literature is mentioned about. Christianity through a religious ritual repurchases the sins of its followers and gives them tidings about heaven.

By: Abdol Aziz Noamani


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